Fugitive United States intelligence agent Edward Snowden marks on Thursday one year of political asylum in Russia, where he continues to live a life shrouded in mystery amid a dearth of public appearances.
Little has been heard on the movements of the former National Security Agency (NSA) contractor since he first obtained provisional leave to remain in Russia after spending – according to the official version – a month in the transit area of Moscow's Sheremetyevo airport.
What is known about the reclusive Snowden is the city in which he lives, that he is working and in which sector he has found a job.
The last picture of Snowden published in Russian media dates from December 2013. In it, the former agent sports a red t-shirt and beige cap, apparently on a boat in the middle of the Moskva river. The popular website LifeNews also published an image of Snowden pushing a supermarket trolley while out shopping, which his lawyer, Anatoli Kucherena, confirmed to be genuine.
In April, Snowden made a shock appearance on an annual question and answer session with President Vladimir Putin, probing the Kremlin strongman on the surveillance of Russia's population.
"I would like to ask you: Does Russia intercept, store or analyse, in any way, the communications of millions of individuals?" he asked in a recorded message, appearing against a black background wearing a dark jacket and grey t-shirt.
Fear for his life
Accused by Washington of espionage and stealing state documents, Snowden travelled to Moscow via Hong Kong after revealing the true extent of global US electronic surveillance. He had intended to travel to South America.
The former NSA employee, who has had his passport withdrawn by US authorities, stayed in Russia after being granted asylum.
Snowden's lawyer Kucherena said on Tuesday that the fugitive still feared for his life. "If I had the chance to organise a meeting with him, I would. But for now the question of security is still relevant," Kucherena said at a forum on education. "I know his worries, his relationship to life, his relationships with people. I know his relationship with his parents. He is a very honourable man," he said.
In January, Snowden received online death threats from some US officials, the identity of whom has not been revealed, according to Kucherena.
As hopes dwindle that he may be able to return to the US or obtain asylum in Brazil – which he has sought – Snowden has asked for an extension of his residency permit in Russia, which expires on Thursday. Kucherena indicated at the beginning of July that Snowden's renewal documents had been submitted to immigration services but that the procedure had not been finalised.
Russian officials have yet to make any formal announcement on the status of Snowden's application and Kucherena now refuses to comment on the subject. However, immigration sources have told Russian media on the condition of anonymity that the renewal will be accepted, adding it was up to Snowden whether or not to announce the decision.
"The very presence of Snowden is of symbolic importance to Russia," said political scientist Alexei Makarkin. "Snowden has become a symbol of the struggle for freedom, and that's useful for Russia. Today, that's one of the strongest arguments (Russia) could put to the international community" as relations with the West deteriorate, he said.