"Such a joint effort by the US and Pakistan is essential to strengthen regional and national security," Biden noted during the breakfast meeting held at his Naval Observatory residence.
Later in the day, Biden is scheduled to join Obama in the Oval Office of the White House for his maiden meeting with Sharif.
"The Vice President affirmed to the Prime Minister that together we must continue to combat terrorism and violent extremism and work to strengthen regional and global security," the White House said in a statement.
Biden congratulated the Prime Minister on his historic election in May, which led to the first democratic transfer of power between elected governments in Pakistan's history.
The Vice President reaffirmed the US commitment to strengthening bilateral ties in support of a strong, democratic, prosperous Pakistan, the statement said.
"The Vice President and Prime Minister also discussed many of the economic and development challenges that Pakistan faces and the steps the Prime Minister is taking to address them," the White House said.
Sharif is currently on a four-day official visit to the US.
After arriving in Washington, Sharif so far has had a series of high level meetings with the top officials of the Obama Administration, including the Secretary of State, Defense Secretary, Commerce Secretary, Energy Secretary, Treasury Secretary and the US Trade Representatives.
He has also met lawmakers and interacted with the Washington's think tank community and the Pakistani American diaspora.