Forty years after The Exorcist scared the wits out of cinema audiences around the world, the Roman Catholic Church is training up a new generation of priests to meet a growing demand for exorcism. Dioceses across Italy, as well as in countries such as Spain, are increasing the number of priests schooled in administering the rite of exorcism, fabled to rid people of possession by the Devil.
The rise in demonic cases is a result of more people dabbling in practices such as black magic, paganism, Satanic rites and Ouija boards, often exploring the dark arts with the help of information readily found on the internet, the Church said.
The increase in the number of priests being trained to tackle the phenomenon is also an effort by the Church to sideline unauthorised, self-proclaimed exorcists, and its tacit recognition that belief in Satan, once regarded by Catholic progressives as an embarrassment, is still very much alive.
The trend comes four decades after the 1973 release of The Exorcist, the American horror film based on the demonic possession of a 12-year-old girl and attempts to exorcise her by two priests.
The diocese of Milan recently nominated seven new exorcists, the bishop of Naples appointed three new ones a couple of years ago and the Catholic Church in Sardinia sent three priests for exorcism training in Rome, amid concern that the Mediterranean island, particularly its mountainous, tradition-bound interior, is a hotbed of occultism.
In Spain, Antonio Maria Rouco Varela, the archbishop of Madrid, chose eight priests to undergo special training in May to confront what he described as "an unprecedented rise" in cases of "demonic possession". The Church in Spain was coming across many cases that "go beyond the competence of psychologists" and they were occurring with "a striking frequency", the archbishop said.
"Diabolical possessions are on the increase as a result of people subscribing to occultism," said Fr Francesco Bamonte, the president of the Italy-based International Association for Exorcists. "The few exorcists that we have in the dioceses are often not able to handle the enormous number of requests for help," he told La Repubblica last month.
The association was founded in 1993 by Fr Gabriele Amorth, who served as the Vatican's chief exorcist and claims to have conducted thousands of exorcisms. He has written several books on the subject, including The Last Exorcist - My Fight Against Satan.
A controversial figure, he has claimed that yoga is "evil" because it leads to a worship of Hinduism and other Eastern religions. During the papacy of Benedict XVI he said that the sex abuse scandals which engulfed the Church in the US, Ireland, Australia and other countries were proof that the Antichrist was waging a war against the Holy See.
The Church insists that the majority of people who claim to be possessed by the Devil are suffering from a variety of mental health issues, from paranoia to depression. Priests generally advise them to seek medical help. But in a few cases, it is judged that the person really has been taken over by evil, and an exorcism is required. The need for exorcisms is "rare, very rare", said Fr Vincenzio Taraborelli, a priest in a church which lies just a few hundred yards from the Vatican.
"In the cases where a mental illness is apparent, we try to send them to a doctor." Don Gianni Sini is a priest in Sardinia, an island with a reputation for spiritualism - its interior is dotted with mysterious stone-built structures called nuraghi, which predate Carthaginian and Roman occupation. "People come to me thinking that with an exorcism they can resolve all the problems they have in their lives. A child is doing badly at school? With an exorcism we can make him study.
They see exorcists as a last resort. Out of 100 people that I receive, there will be one who has need of me as an exorcist." "Demonic" possession manifests itself in people babbling in languages foreign to them, shaking uncontrollably and vomiting nails, pieces of metal and shards of glass, according to those who believe in the phenomenon.
They must undergo the official Catholic rite of exorcism, which involves a consecrated priest invoking the name of God, as well as various saints and the Archangel Michael, to cast out their demons. The growth in the number of priests being trained is "a response to public demand, but it's also about quality control", said John Allen, an expert on the Vatican from the National Catholic Reporter.
"There are all these guys, some of them priests, who have set themselves up as exorcists. A lot of it is fairly dodgy theologically - they are self-appointed exorcists running around purporting to be acting on behalf of the Church.
"Now there is an attempt to ensure that all this is done in accordance with the Church's official teaching. The hierarchy don't want it going on outside the official channels." Monsignor Bruno Forte, a theologian and the archbishop of Chieti-Vasto, said the Church teaches that evil exists and that in extreme cases it can take possession of a person.
"God has the power to beat his adversary, but Satan never ceases to work. There are people who experiment with subjection to the Devil, even a state of diabolical possession, for which the help of an exorcist can be necessary," he told La Repubblica.
"When Christians recite the Our Father prayer, they ask for delivery from evil. In every diocese the bishop chooses one or two priests to act as exorcists - they have to be well balanced and discreet. "The great majority do not have need of an exorcism, but medical treatment.
But with those who are possessed we begin a course of conversion, help them to return to prayer, to the sacraments, to enable them to throw off the possession." Belief in black magic and Satanism may have been spread by the internet, but there has been a streak of popular superstition in the Catholic Church for centuries. "I'm not sure it ever really went away," said Mr Allen.
"After the Second Vatican Council of the 1960s, there was a great deal of embarrassment among 'enlightened' Catholics about exorcisms and other aspects of the supernatural. It was seen as a medieval anachronism.
"But at the grassroots level there has always been a very strong streak of popular religion, a fascination with the occult and the powers of the Devil. "We know that Pope Francis is a strong believer in popular religion such as Marian devotion, but that also includes belief in the Devil."
In May it was claimed that Pope Francis had performed an exorcism during a Mass in St Peter's Square. Television images show him laying his hands on a wheelchair-bound man, who appears to go into convulsions with his mouth open before slumping down into his chair.
The encounter was shown by TV2000, a channel owned by the Italian bishops' conference, which quoted experts as saying that there was no doubt the Pope had performed an exorcism.
Fr Federico Lombardi, the Vatican spokesman, later dismissed the claims, saying Pope Francis "did not intend" to perform an exorcism - an ambivalently-worded denial that left many convinced that he had indeed done so.
Pope Francis has not publicly commented on exorcisms, but many of his sermons and homilies feature references to the Devil. During a Mass in November in the Casa Santa Marta, the Vatican residence where he lives, he said that although "God created man to be incorruptible", the Devil entered the world and there are those "who belong to him".
At a Mass days before, he talked of the dangers of worldliness, warning that: "When we think of our enemies, we really think of the Devil first, because it's the Devil that harms us. The Devil enjoys the atmosphere, the lifestyle of worldliness."