Hales, averages 37.85 in 32 Twenty20 internationals for England, but has yet to play an ODI. All-rounder and limited-overs regular Ravi Bopara has been left out from the 15-man squad while paceman Stuart Broad, who is facing surgery on a longstanding knee injury, also misses out.
The five-match ODI series would be followed by a T20 international at Edgbaston on 7 September, The BBC reported.
Aside from Broad, who will seek a specialist surgical opinion on his knee later this week, opener Sam Robson is the only player from the final Test XI not involved in the squad.
Pace bowler Steven Finn, who has not represented England in any format since last September but recently returned to the Test squad, is included, as is all-rounder Ben Stokes who was dropped after the second Test against India.
Despite Bopara's absence, one-day regulars Eoin Morgan and James Tredwell retain their ODI places, as does left-arm seamer Harry Gurney who made his one-day debut earlier this season, but seamer Tim Bresnan and opener Michael Carberry are omitted, having been in the ODI squad against Sri Lanka in May and June.
National selector James Whitaker said that with the ICC Cricket World Cup now less than six months away their focus over the coming months switches to identifying their strongest possible squad for that competition. However, Whitaker added that this is an important series in its own right and they have selected 15 players who they believe will perform well against an Indian side with a strong one-day record.
England now play only one-day and T20 cricket until April 2015. They face seven ODIs in Sri Lanka later this year, and a triangular ODI series against India and hosts Australia shortly before the World Cup in Australia and New Zealand gets under way in February 2015.
England one-day squad: Alastair Cook (captain), Moeen Ali, James Anderson, Gary Ballance, Ian Bell, Jos Buttler, Steven Finn, Harry Gurney, Alex Hales, Chris Jordan, Eoin Morgan, Joe Root, Ben Stokes, James Tredwell, Chris Woakes.