The Blues were given the lead by Demba Ba towards the end of the first half, and the second was scored by Willian during stoppage time, reports the BBC.
The result ends Liverpool's 16-match unbeaten streak that had seen them march to the top of the table and means the title is no longer in their control.
Manchester City can draw level with them if they win their game in hand, while Chelsea are two points behind, within touching distance should Brendan Rodgers' side slip up again.
Liverpool's attempt at a trademark fast start failed in the face of a wall of blue shirts, with the visitors' five-man midfield sitting deep to protect their back four.
Chelsea were keen to disrupt the home side's flow in other ways too, taking their time over set-pieces from the first minute onwards to visibly frustrate Liverpool's players as well as annoying their fans.
The Reds were still dominant in terms of possession, but, on reaching the edge of the Chelsea area, they struggled to open up a typically well-organised defence.
Chelsea Coach Jose Mourinho described the win over Liverpool as a 'beautiful victory'.