Shocking as it may sound, Mumbai lags behind in the state’s human development index (HDI) as compared to other urban areas like Pune, Nagpur, Thane and Nashik.
The HDI helps reveal imbalances and disparities in parameters like urban and rural areas, men and women, region and district, social groups and in development of different income groups. It is calculated on the basis of indicators like education (enrolment and literacy rate), health (infant mortality rate) and income (per capita district domestic product at constant prices).
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) had formulated the first global human development report (HDR) in 1990, while India followed suit in 2001. Maharashtra’s HDR was first compiled in 2002. The UNDP’s 2013 report pegs India at a low 136 among 186 countries.
A presentation regarding the state’s draft HDR was made by Pune-based YASHADA before the state cabinet on Wednesday. The ranking of blocks as per the composite block index showed that the Pune municipal area topped the state, followed by Nagpur urban, Thane, Haveli, Nashik, Kalyan and Panvel with Mumbai at number eight. The metropolis is followed by Vasai, Ulhasnagar and Satara. While Union agriculture minister Sharad Pawar’s stronghold of Baramati is at number 56, chief minister Prithviraj Chavan may have some consolation in store with Karad at 26.
Former chief minister Ashok Chavan’s Nanded is at 39 and leader of the Opposition in the state legislative assembly Eknath Khadse’s Muktainagar in Jalgaon is at 215.
However, Maharashtra’s HDI has risen from 0.679 in 2001 to 0.757 in 2011, with the HDI for all districts showing an increase. Mumbai’s HDI is 0.846 (up from 2001’s 0.762) while that of Thane is 0.816. The literacy in the state has increased from 76.9% in 2001 to 82.9% in 2011, while the corresponding rise for Mumbai has been 90.3% from 86.75%.
Urban economist Abhay Pethe of University of Mumbai said that since HDI included income, health and literacy, Mumbai performed well in income and literacy but fared poorly in health because half of the city’s population lived in slums. “Each indicator has a level of aggregation... and availability of proper data at a conceptual level,” he said, pointing out that it was difficult to compute HDI at the block level.
The per capita net district domestic income has risen from Rs21,892 in 2001 to Rs35,033 in 2008-9, with Mumbai, Pune and Thane showing the highest rise. In 2008-9, Mumbai accounts for the highest indicator on the parameter at Rs58,818 followed by Rs50,408 for Thane and Rs50,150 for Pune, while in 2001 that for Mumbai was Rs36,883.
In 2001, the tribal-dominated districts of Gadhciroli (60.1%) and Nandurbar (55.8%) were at the bottom in literacy parameters, but in 2011, the literacy in Naxalite violence-affected Gadchiroli has risen to 70.6% while Nandurbar is languishing at 63%.
The gross enrolment ratio (GER) for schools has risen from 88.6% in 2001 to 89.6% in 2011. In 2001, Nandurbar had the lowest ratio, while Latur had the highest. However, in 2011, the GER for Nandurbar had risen while that of Latur has marginally fallen. Infant mortality has declined by 22 points from 47 in 2011 to 44 in 2007-8. Nandurbar (75) accounts for the highest infant mortality in 2011 while Kolhapur (13) has the lowest.
The report card
Maharashtra’s per capita net state domestic product at current prices was high by over 46% than that of India (2008-9).
Mumbai, Thane, Pune belt made up for 48% of economic development in 2008-2009.
According to Suresh Tendulkar Committee report, rural poverty in Maharashtra declined from 47.9% in 2004-5 to 29.5% in 2009-10, while the corresponding decline for urban areas was 25.60% in 2004-2005 to 18.30% in 2009-10.