The 12 include former Janata Dal-United (JD-U) MP Jagdish Sharma. The Central Bureau of Investigation fined him Rs 2 lakh.
The court on Wednesday convicted 19 people, seven of whom were sentenced to three years' imprisonment.
The case is related to the fraudulent withdrawal of Rs 1.16 crore from the undivided Bihar's Godda district treasury.
There were 30 accused in the case. Six died during the trial, two turned CBI approvers, two admitted their guilt and one is still absconding.
Sharma was also convicted in another case along with Rashtriya Janata Dal chief Lalu Yadav in September 2013. He lost his Lok Sabha membership along with Lalu Yadav after being sentenced to five years' imprisonment.
Friday's judgment was the 44th in the fodder scam case.
Lalu Prasad quit as Bihar chief minister in 1997 when his name figured in the fodder scam.
CBI courts have passed judgment in 43 cases. Lalu Prasad and another former Bihar chief minister, Jagannath Mishra, are accused in five cases.