Those who smoke and drink heavily may are likelier to develop pancreatic cancer at an earlier age than those who don't, according to a new study.
Researchers from the University of Michigan Health System found that heavy smokers with pancreatic cancer were diagnosed around age 62 and heavy drinkers at age 61 – almost a decade earlier than the average age of 72.
Smoking is a strong risk factor for pancreatic cancer and alcohol has been shown to cause oxidative damage to the pancreas, which sets the stage for the inflammatory pathways that can lead to cancer.
The findings only indicate these habits can lead to developing pancreatic cancer earlier in life.
The study of 811 pancreatic cancer patients from the multicenter, international database Pancreatic Cancer Collaborative Registry does not prove the habits caused cancer.
The study does make a step toward understanding at what age screening for pancreatic cancer should begin – once widespread screening is available.
"As screening programs are developed, an understanding of how personal features influence the age of presentation will be important to optimize the timing of those screenings," says lead study author and gastroenterologist Michelle Anderson, MD, assistant professor of internal medicine at the University of Michigan Health System.
Detecting pancreatic cancer early is difficult and contributes to the poor survival rates. By the time pancreatic cancer is diagnosed, it is frequently at an advanced stage and has spread to other organs.
Currently there are no tests available to easily find it in people who do not have symptoms. In the study, heavy smokers were defined as those who had more than a pack per day, and heavy drinking was measured at more than 39 grams a day, or about three average drinks per day.
The study has been published in the American Journal of Gastroenterology.