The work, led by Myles Faith, an associate professor of nutrition at University of North Carolina’s (UNC) Gillings School of Global Public Health, adds to the growing body of knowledge that genes play a significant role in children’s eating behavior, including the tendency to avoid new foods.
“In some respects, food neophobia, or the aversion to trying new foods, is similar to child temperament or personality,” Faith said.
“Some children are more genetically susceptible than others to avoid new foods. However, that doesn’t mean that they can’t change their behaviors and become a little less picky,” he said.
The study looked at 66 pairs of twins between ages 4 and 7 years old, and found that genes explain 72 percent of the variation among children in the tendency to avoid new foods, while the rest was influenced by environment.
Previous research has shown a similar genetic influence for food neophobia in 8 to 11-year-olds (78 percent) and adults (69 percent), suggesting that the impact of genes on food neophobia is constant across the developmental spectrum.
Faith and his team also examined the relationship between food neophobia and body fat measures in both parent and child.
Unexpectedly, the researchers found that if the parent was heavier, the child was heavier only if he or she avoided trying new foods.
On the environmental side, the findings suggest that parents should consider each child’s idiosyncrasies, even for siblings in the same household, when thinking about how to increase a child’s acceptance of new foods.
For example, parents can serve as role models and provide repeated exposure to new foods at home, or show their child how much they enjoy the food being avoided.
They might also provide a choice of several new items from which a child could select.
The study is published in the journal Obesity.